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This Week’s Most Viewed Papers 

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The following papers reined in the most document views this week:

Through a careful examination of the accounts of Daqin (presumably the Roman Empire) and Fulin (Byzantinum), we can depict a picture of how the Chinese imagined another ancient empire far away in the West. The Chinese annals not only give information on and the interpretation of the name of that mysterious country but also add details about its geography, administration, economy – including agriculture, domesticated animals and products, trade and the envoys sent by Daqin people. Such a description could be remarkable on its own but the accounts also emphasize the similarities between the two great empires that might have originated in their same cultural level.

This paper provides an in-depth review and analysis of literature on dropping out from school, and focuses on children who have gained access, but fail to complete a basic education cycle. The main discussion is around why and how children drop out from school. The paper looks at literature in relation to household, community and social contexts of dropping out, as well as school supply and practices. It also explores what research is saying around pre-cursors to dropping out and factors which may influence retention.

The fact that Nigeria is one of the leading producers of oil in the world is no longer news, but what is the significance of the oil wealth to the development of the Nigerian economy? Up to the early 1980s, Nigeria’s economy enjoyed the presence of both agricultural produce and the production of other consumers’ goods, however for almost three decades after, petroleum has been the country’s main source of revenue. What is the implication of this to the survival of the Nigerian nation? What impact does petroleum exploitation have on the local communities?

What constitutes “Latin America” and its “history”? It is not the result of some teleological process by which what is today commonly termed Latin America came to be, for which we can identify a starting point and visualize a neat and discreet evolutionary trajectory. To begin such a discussion, it is as useful as it is obvious to recall that these and similar descriptive labels are the products of human mental activity, and did not emerge from natural phenomena or processes. The region of the world now commonly referred to as Latin America existed long before the term emerged as the mental construct that it is. And in the recent past the validity of the label has come under fundamental question,despite the fact that it continues in academic and public discourse as a shorthand label of convenience.

This paper proceeds as a brief intervention in response to Andrew Foxall’s article “Geopolitics, genocide and the Olympic Games: Sochi 2014”. I address the violence that is associated with the Olympic Games and the politics of place that are involved in site selection. In offering some reflections on how the Olympics are irrevocably tied to colonial processes, my primary contention is that it is necessary to ask critical geographical questions about the Games. Such interrogation opens up a dialogue wherein greater awareness for the legacies of violence may be established, which has the potential to interrupt its ongoing unfoldings.

Stress is a universal element and persons from nearly every walk of life have to face stress. Employers today are critically analyzing the stress management issues that contribute to lower job performance of employee originating from dissatisfaction and high turnover ultimately affecting organizational goals and objectives. How stress affects employee performance, managerial responsibility, and consequences high stress are basic aims of the study. The factors affecting stress were identified: personal issues, lack of administrator support, lack of acceptance for work done, low span over work environment, unpredictability in work environment and inadequate monetary reward.

Strength – the ability to exert relatively large forces on objects in the external world – was likely a critical component of Neandertal adaptation to Pleistocene Eurasia. A consideration of the size of muscle attachment sites and of mechanical advantage (or leverage) in the upper limb of Neandertals, early modern humans and recent human samples reveals pronounced upper body strength in the Neandertals relative to most modern humans. Upper body strength was probably important to hunting success in the context of close-range hunting with hand-delivered weapons, and greater strength probably increased the diversity of prey species the Neandertals could hunt. Long-range projectile weaponry, as possibly employed by early modern humans,would have relaxed to a great degree the need for upper body strength in hunting success.

Tertiary educational institutes have had many Information Systems (IS) developed and implemented for the use of end-users. The problem is that more often than not, the impacts of IS on social communities of organisations have not been taken into account. This research explores the issues of the interface between IS and society, and addresses the social impact of these systems. A thorough investigation of the IS and users of those systems at the University of South Africa has been undertaken in this study. This research proposes a set of guidelines to help ensure that the social impacts of tertiary institutes’ IS are taken into account in the design and implementation of these systems, thereby increasing the chance of success of those systems.

In this article I try to articulate a critical assessment of the current geopolitical asset of Digital Humanities (DH). This critique is based on one hand on data about the composition of government organs, institutions and principal journals of the field, and on the other hand on a general reflection on the cultural, political and linguistic bias of digital standards, protocols and interfaces. These reflections suggest that DH is not only a discipline and an academic discourse dominated materially by an Anglo-American élite and intellectually by a mono-cultural view, but that it lacks a theoretical model for reflecting critically on its own instruments. 

At a time when news organizations are struggling to grab the attention of audiences in a media-saturated environment, social networking sites (SNS) have created novel opportunities for journalists to connect with followers online—raising questions about how types of social media use might be associated with forging greater connection with users. Through a content analysis of more than 22,000 tweets (or microblog posts), this study examines the extent to which the 430 most-followed journalists on Twitter are using humor— and how such use is associated with other forms of engagement on Twitter.

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by Courtney Quirin, Science Writer

Comments Jan 25, 2013
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